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Influenza Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Silver Nanoparticles Impair Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I Mediated Mitochondrial Anti-Viral Immunity by Blocking the Autophagic Flux in Lung Epithelial Cells.
    Silver Nanoparticles Impair Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I Mediated Mitochondrial Anti-Viral Immunity by Blocking the Autophagic Flux in Lung Epithelial Cells. [Journal Article]ACS Nano 2018 Jan 22.ANVilleret B, Dieu A, Straube M, et al. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are microbicidal agents which could be potentially used as alternative to antivirals to treat human infectious diseases, especially Influenza virus infection where antivira...Publisher Full TextSilver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are microbicidal agents which could be potentially used as alternative to antivirals to treat human infectious diseases, especially Influenza virus infection where antivirals have generally proven unsuccessful. However, concerns about the use of AgNPs on humans arise from their potential toxicity, although mechanisms are not well-understood. We show here, in the context of Influenza virus infection of lung epithelial cells, that AgNPs down-regulated Influenza induced-CCL-5 and -IFN-β release (two cytokines important in anti-viral immunity) through RIG-I inhibition, while enhancing IL-8 production, a cytokine important for mobilizing host antibacterial responses. AgNPs activity was independent of coating and was not observed with gold nanoparticles. Down-stream analysis indicated that AgNPs disorganized the mitochondrial network and prevented the anti-viral IRF-7 transcription factor influx into the nucleus. Importantly, we showed that the modulation of RIG-I-IRF-7 pathway was concomitant with inhibition of either classical or alternative autophagy (ATG-5- and Rab-9 dependent, respectively), depending on the epithelial cell type used. Altogether, this demonstration of a AgNPs-mediated functional dichotomy (down-regulation of IFN-dependent anti-viral responses and up-regulation of IL-8 -dependent antibacterial responses) may have practical implications for their use in the clinic.

  • Antibody Immunodominance: The Key to Understanding Influenza Virus Antigenic Drift.
    Antibody Immunodominance: The Key to Understanding Influenza Virus Antigenic Drift. [Journal Article]Viral Immunol 2018 Jan 22.VIAltman MO, Angeletti D, Yewdell JW Influenza A virus (IAV) imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on humanity. Vaccination is effective in only 60% of individuals, even under optimal circumstances. The difficulty stems from the rema...Publisher Full TextPublisher Full TextInfluenza A virus (IAV) imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on humanity. Vaccination is effective in only 60% of individuals, even under optimal circumstances. The difficulty stems from the remarkable ability of IAV to evade existing immunity. IAV's error prone polymerase enables the rapid antigenic evolution of the two virion surface glycoproteins, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin (HA). Since the most potent antibodies (Abs) at neutralizing viral infectivity are directed the head of the HA, amino acid substitutions in this region enable IAV to evade Ab-based immunity. Here, we review recent progress in understanding how immunodominance, the tendency of the immune system to respond to foreign immunogens in a hierarchical manner, shapes IAV evolution.

  • 1918 pandemic morbidity: the first wave hits the poor, the second wave hits the rich.
    1918 pandemic morbidity: the first wave hits the poor, the second wave hits the rich. [Journal Article]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Jan 21.IOMamelund SE For the first time it is documented a crossover in the role of socioeconomic status in 1918 pandemic morbidity. The poor came down with influenza first, while the rich with less exposure in the first w...Publisher Full TextWhether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral".To study the associations between Influenza like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic.Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918. Here, an overlooked survey from Bergen, Norway (n=10,633), is used to study differences in probabilities of ILI and ILI probability ratios by apartment size as a measure of SES and gender for three waves including the waves prior to and after the "fall wave".SES was negatively associated with ILI in the first wave, but positively associated in the second wave. At all SES levels, men had the highest ILI in the summer, while women had the highest ILI in the fall. There were no SES or gender differences in ILI in the winter of 1919.For the first time it is documented a crossover in the role of socioeconomic status in 1918 pandemic morbidity. The poor came down with influenza first, while the rich with less exposure in the first wave had the highest morbidity in the second wave. The study suggest that socioeconomically disadvantaged should be prioritized if vaccines are of limited availability in a future pandemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • In utero exposure to the 1918 pandemic influenza in Denmark and risk of dementia.
    In utero exposure to the 1918 pandemic influenza in Denmark and risk of dementia. [Journal Article]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Jan 22.IOCocoros NM, Ording AG, Horváth-Puhó E, et al. Our study suggests there is likely not an association between in utero exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic and dementia among those 62 and older. This article is protected by copyright. All rights ...Publisher Full TextSubstantial but inconclusive evidence suggests in utero exposure to influenza infection may be linked with Alzheimer's disease.We examined whether individuals exposed in utero to the 1918 influenza pandemic are at increased risk of dementia.In this cohort study, surveillance data were used to identify months when influenza activity was at its peak during the pandemic. Using birth dates, exposed and unexposed individuals were identified based on whether they were in utero during ≥1 of the peak months. The outcome, any type of dementia, was identified in population-based medical registries. Time and age at risk was restricted so exposed and unexposed had equal time at risk; diagnoses for dementia were assessed between ages 62 and 92, with a maximum of 30 years at risk. Poisson regression was used to estimate sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR).We identified 106,479 exposed and 177,918 unexposed persons. Using the cumulative risk function, there were similar proportions of exposed and unexposed with a dementia diagnosis at 11.9% and 11.7%, respectively. Across all ages, the IRR for the association between in utero influenza exposure and any dementia was 1.01 (95% CI 0.99-1.04); for Alzheimer's disease it was 0.97 (0.93-1.01). When stratified by age and sex, and when dementia type was examined, estimates of association were also null or close to null.Our study suggests there is likely not an association between in utero exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic and dementia among those 62 and older. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Standardisation of inactivated influenza vaccines - learning from history.
    Standardisation of inactivated influenza vaccines - learning from history. [Journal Article]Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Jan 21.IOWood JM, Weir JP The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standard...Publisher Full TextThe single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined. Nevertheless, there are significant limitations to the SRID assay that indicate the need for improvement, and there has been a substantial amount of work undertaken in recent years to develop and evaluate alternative potency assays, including collaborative studies involving research laboratories, regulatory agencies, and vaccine manufacturers. Here, we provide an overview of the history of inactivated influenza vaccine potency testing, the current state of alternative assay development, and the some of the major challenges to be overcome before implementation of new assays for potency determination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Antiviral potential of medicinal plants against HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus: A systematic review.
    Antiviral potential of medicinal plants against HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus: A systematic review. [Journal Article, Review]Phytother Res 2018 Jan 22.PRAkram M, Tahir IM, Shah SMA, et al. Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are...Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections. It is widely accepted that medicinal plant heritage is nature gifted, precious, and fueled with the valuable resources for treatment of metabolic and infectious disorders. The aims of this review are to assemble the facts and to conclude the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants in the eradication and management of various viral diseases such as influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis, and coxsackievirus infections, which have been proven in diverse clinical studies. The articles, published in the English language since 1982 to 2017, were included from Web of Science, Cochrane Library, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed by using relevant keywords including plants possessing antiviral activity, the antiviral effects of plants, and plants used in viral disorders. The scientific literature mainly focusing on plant extracts and herbal products with therapeutic efficacies against experimental models of influenza, HIV, HSV, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus were included in the study. Pure compounds possessing antiviral activity were excluded, and plants possessing activity against viruses other than viruses in inclusion criteria were excluded. Hundreds of plant extracts with antiviral effect were recognized. However, the data from only 36 families investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. The inferences from scientific literature review, focusing on potential therapeutic consequences of medicinal plants on experimental models of HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus have ascertained the curative antiviral potential of plants. Fifty-four medicinal plants belonging to 36 different families having antiviral potential were documented. Out of 54 plants, 27 individually belong to particular plant families. On the basis of the work of several independent research groups, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants against listed common viral diseases in the region has been proclaimed. In this context, the herbal formulations as alternative medicine may contribute to the eradication of complicated viral infection significantly. The current review consolidates the data of the various medicinal plants, those are Sambucus nigra, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Hypericum connatum, holding promising specific antiviral activities scientifically proven through studies on experimental animal models. Consequently, the original research addressing the development of novel nutraceuticals based on listed medicinal plants is highly recommended for the management of viral disorders.

  • In-depth phylodynamics, evolutionary analysis and in silico predictions of universal epitopes of Influenza A subtypes and Influenza B viruses.
    In-depth phylodynamics, evolutionary analysis and in silico predictions of universal epitopes of Influenza A subtypes and Influenza B viruses. [Journal Article]Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Jan 17.MPDurães-Carvalho R, Salemi M This study applied High-Performance Computing to explore the high-resolution phylodynamics and the evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses (IVs) A and B and their subtypes in-depth to identify pepti...This study applied High-Performance Computing to explore the high-resolution phylodynamics and the evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses (IVs) A and B and their subtypes in-depth to identify peptide-based candidates for broad-spectrum vaccine targets. For this purpose, we collected all the available Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) nucleotide and amino acid sequences (more than 100,000) of IVs isolated from all the reservoirs and intermediate hosts species, from all geographic ranges and from different isolation sources, covering a period of almost one century of sampling years. We highlight that despite the constant changes in Influenza evolutionary dynamics over time, which are responsible for the generation of novel strains, our study identified the presence of highly conserved peptides distributed in all the HA and NA found in H1-H18 and N1-N11 IAV subtypes and IBVs. Additionally, predictions through computational methods showed that these peptides could have a strong affinity to bind to HLA-A∗02:01/HLA-DRB1∗01:01 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules, therefore acting as a double ligand. Moreover, epitope prediction in antigens from pathogens responsible for secondary bacterial infection was also studied. These findings show that the regions mapped here may potentially be explored as universal epitope-based candidates to develop therapies leading to a broader response against the infection induced by all circulating IAVs, IBVs and Influenza-associated bacterial infections.

  • Intermittent treatment of severe influenza.
    Intermittent treatment of severe influenza. [Journal Article]J Theor Biol 2018 Jan 17.JTDeecke L, Dobrovolny HM Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of the virus. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutan...Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of the virus. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic since for new strains there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply drugs periodically. During treatment phases the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. A stochastic model of severe influenza is combined with a model of drug resistance to simulate long-lasting infections and intermittent treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. Each drug's ability to reduce emergence of drug resistant mutants is investigated. We find that cell regeneration is required for successful implementation of intermittent treatment and that the optimal cycling parameters change with regeneration rate.

  • Influenza Hemifusion Phenotype Depends on Membrane Context: Differences in Cell-Cell and Virus-Cell Fusion.
    Influenza Hemifusion Phenotype Depends on Membrane Context: Differences in Cell-Cell and Virus-Cell Fusion. [Journal Article]J Mol Biol 2018 Jan 16.JMZawada KE, Okamoto K, Kasson PM Influenza viral entry into the host cell cytoplasm is accomplished by a process of membrane fusion mediated by the viral hemagglutinin protein. Hemagglutinin acts in a pH-triggered fashion, inserting a...Influenza viral entry into the host cell cytoplasm is accomplished by a process of membrane fusion mediated by the viral hemagglutinin protein. Hemagglutinin acts in a pH-triggered fashion, inserting a short fusion peptide into the host membrane followed by refolding of a coiled-coil structure to draw the viral envelope and host membranes together. Mutations to this fusion peptide provide an important window into viral fusion mechanisms and protein-membrane interactions. Here, we show that a well-described fusion peptide mutant, G1S, has a phenotype that depends strongly on the viral membrane context. The G1S mutant is well known to cause a "hemifusion" phenotype based on experiments in transfected cells, where cells expressing G1S hemagglutinin can undergo lipid mixing in a pH-triggered fashion similar to virus but will not support fusion pores. We compare fusion by the G1S hemagglutinin mutant expressed either in cells or in influenza virions and show that this hemifusion phenotype occurs in transfected cells but that native virions are able to support full fusion, albeit at a slower rate and 10-100× reduced infectious titer. We explain this with a quantitative model where the G1S mutant, instead of causing an absolute block of fusion, alters the protein stoichiometry required for fusion. This change slightly slows fusion at high hemagglutinin density, as on the viral surface, but at lower hemagglutinin density produces a hemifusion phenotype. The quantitative model thus reproduces the observed virus-cell and cell-cell fusion phenotypes, yielding a unified explanation where membrane context can control the observed viral fusion phenotype.

  • Inhibitors of Influenza A Virus Polymerase.
    Inhibitors of Influenza A Virus Polymerase. [Journal Article]ACS Infect Dis 2018 Jan 22.AIYuan S, Wen L, Zhou J The propensity of influenza virus to develop resistance to commonly prescribed drugs highlights the need for continuing development of new therapeutics. Biological and structural investigations of the ...The propensity of influenza virus to develop resistance to commonly prescribed drugs highlights the need for continuing development of new therapeutics. Biological and structural investigations of the enzymatic and interaction domains among influenza A virus polymerase subunits have broadened the target reservoir for drug screening. With the wealth of knowledge from these studies, identification of small-molecule and peptidic inhibitors that specifically abrogate polymerase activity or disrupt the polymerase assembly has emerged as an innovative and promising approach. Importantly, those domains are highly conserved among influenza subtypes and thus minimize the emergence of drug resistant mutants. An overview of the reported enzymatic inhibitors and protein-protein disruptors has been provided, in our effort to facilitate the development of next-generation anti-influenza therapeutics.