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Influenzavirus D

Influenza D virus is a species in the virus genus Influenzavirus D, in the family Orthomyxoviridae, that causes influenza. Influenza D viruses are known to infect pigs and cattle; no human infections from this virus have been observed. First isolated from pigs in 2011, the virus was categorized as a new genus of Orthomyxoviridae in 2016, distinct from the previously-known Influenzavirus C genus; before then, Influenza D virus was thought to be a subtype of Influenzavirus C. Cases of infections from the Type D virus are rare compared to Types A, B, and C. Similar to Type C, Type D has 7 RNA segments and encodes 9 proteins, while Types A and B have 8 RNA segments and encode at least 10 proteins.

Because influenza virus A has an animal reservoir that contains all the known subtypes and can undergo antigenic shift, this type of influenza virus is capable of producing pandemics. Influenza viruses A and B also cause seasonal epidemics every year due to their ability to antigenic shift. Influenza viruses C and D do not have this capability, and they have not been implicated in any pandemics; thus, there are currently no human vaccines available for Influenza viruses C or D. An inactivated Influenzavirus D vaccine was developed for cattle; however, the vaccine only provided partial protection in challenge experiments.